Those birds inhabiting the alpine and subalpine ecosystems are influenced by altitude factors which particulary above 2000 metres, have an extreme climate wwith cold temperatures for much of the year, very short summers, a sparsity or lack of trees, the presence of strong winds and ice and or snow on the ground at higher altitudes all year around.

Under these conditions, which influence and determine very specific lifestyles among the local animal and plants communities, birds have developed specific morphologies for adapting to this environment with respect to adverse weather conditions, the scarcity or food and to avoid predators.

Thus, the Rock Ptarmigan moults its plumage from different shades of white in winter as comouflage to blend in with the snow to a greyish brown in summer enabling it to blend in more with the alpine and subalpine pastures. Other birds belonging to the order of passerines inhabiting this ecosystem are Alpine Accentor and the Alpine Pipit. Also commonly found in alpine meadows are the Common Crow, Lark, Common Kestrel, Yellow-billed Chough, Common Rock Thrush and Wallcreeeper.

Despite the fact that this type of habitat has had very little or no human disturbance, climate change is shaping the global development of alpine ecosystems in the medium term and hence the survival of the birds that live there.